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Recidivism

A new program in the Pinal County Jail has begun allowing inmates to use electronic tablets in an effort to reduce their likelihood of committing repeat crimes. The Sheriff’s Office is collaborating with Securus Technologies to provide this influential program, which supplied the equipment without charge. “With tablets, inmates can stay in touch with family and keep their minds preoccupied with educational and religious programming,” Sheriff Mark Lamb stated in the press release. “We expect that it will help with behavior.”

The SecureView tablets are intended to help prisoners maintain contact with their families, access the law library, apply for employment nearing their release date, and access educational and religious programming, such as books and podcasts. The tablets are incredibly intuitive and require no staff intervention. Additionally, utilizing these tablets will be instrumental in familiarizing prisoners with the technologies they will encounter after their release. The prisoners are able to message and call their loved ones through the tablets. This provides a much better opportunity to keep in touch with family and reduce the stress of life while incarcerated through the regular means of communication. Many studies show that regular communication and close relationships with loved ones while incarcerated can greatly reduce the risk of recidivism.

Games are also being introduced on the tablets, with the intent to keep inmates occupied and entertained, while reducing the likelihood that they will be disruptive and take part in arguments or fights. This is not only beneficial to the safety of the inmates but to the staff as well. 

Sheriff Mark Lamb states that they want to be the top jail in the state, or even the western region. “The community needs to see what we are providing for our inmates to help them get back on their feet to be the best citizens they can be.”

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Recidivism

The Singapore Corporation of Rehabilitative Enterprises (SCORE), has adopted a structured strategy to help prisoners find reliable employment when they are released from prison. The inmates are evaluated on their ability to perform particular vocations, and then provide the proper skills and training under the Workforce Skills Qualification (WSQ) framework. The WSQ is a national credential system that trains, assesses, develops, and certifies skills and abilities for the workforce.

In order to better prepare inmates for a real job setting when they are released, they are put through simulated job scenarios. When the inmates complete their training, they decide which jobs they would like to apply for, and are later interviewed by prospective employers. In special cases, employment offers may be provided before they are even released. In order to make these job prospects possible, SCORE coordinates with employers to guarantee that inmates, once released, are provided fair wages and partake in progressive work practices. SCORE provides assistance to former offenders for up to 12 months during the early phase of finding employment. SCORE coordinates with employers and case workers during this period to ensure that these recently released individuals are provided the necessary assistance to effectively re-integrate into their communities and become reliable members of the workforce.

Relationships with family members are also critical to the effectiveness of re-integrating into society. Research has shown that those with healthy familial bonds are less likely to recidivate. With the help of community partners, the Singapore Prison Service conducts programs that assist inmates with forming stronger bonds and relationships with their families. Former inmates who are motivated and hopeful are better prepared to rebuild their life and re-integrate into society. With employment prospects, stronger family bonds, and ties to their community, they have a much higher chance of succeeding in their new lives.

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Recidivism

Incarceration can lead to a lifetime sentence of unemployment for many that are released from prison. Difficulty in finding employment is a strong cause of recidivism, and without a stable income and a sense of purpose and responsibility, 68 percent of those released from Delaware prisons are re-arrested within three years of release. Ajit Mathew George, the founder of Second Chances Farms, has hope for a future where Delaware inmates will have careers as entrepreneurs waiting for them when they’re released. He intends to use abandoned warehouses and empty office spaces near the former inmates and turn them into farming space. His plan to reduce recidivism in his state is to hire 10-15 workers to help in his farms for every 10,000 square foot of farming space. Each worker will be paid $15 an hour during a six to twelve-month apprenticeship period. These farms are extremely effective as they are grown in LED-lit hydroponic towers and do not require soil, pesticides, or even natural sunlight. His goal is to develop a new industry and produce local organic food on a year-round basis, while also improving the livelihood of released inmates and in turn reducing recidivism.

This ingenious concept won George the honor of having the “Best Idea” at the Pete DuPont Freedom Foundation’s Reinventing Delaware competition in early December of 2018. He hopes to open Second Chances Farm No. 1 in Wilmington by September. His Second Chances Farm was awarded a start-up grant of $175,000 after the Reinventing Delaware event by the Welfare Foundation, which supports non-profits focused on social welfare causes in Delaware and southern Chester County.

George believes that the vertical farms allow up to 100 times more production per square foot than traditional farms. Second Chances Farms will be able to produce crops from harvest to grocery store shelves within 24 hours, compared to the lengthy week long and thousand-mile trek for field-grown produce. The inmates participating in these vertical farms have served their time and now can be meaningfully engaged in their community through agriculture. The chance to be able to run a high-tech hydroponic farm is a great way for these individuals to learn a growing enterprise.

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Recidivism

People might think convicted felons solely deserve retribution, but it has been proven ineffective in avoiding recidivism. Retribution is defined as punishment being inflicted on someone for a wrong or criminal act, whereas rehabilitation is the action of restoring someone to a healthy or normal life through training and therapy. Inmates have lost their freedom and are serving time as their punishment, however, rehabilitation in and after prison is the key to helping prisoners avoid repeating offenses once released back into society. 

In the article How Norway Turns Criminals into Good Neighbours, Norway realizes that a punitive “lock-up” approach does not effectively change the behavior of inmates and by moving away from this approach, they are sharply cutting reoffending rates. Instead of guards working to establish a “masculine, macho culture with a focus on guarding and security”, they can now focus on rehabilitation and interacting with inmates as if they are not convicted felons, serving as role models, coaches and mentors. Everyday inmates participate in activities alongside guards like yoga and eating meals, encouraging socialization. With this rehabilitative and social approach, the prison can feel more like home and less like an entrapment they are stuck in. This method has proven to be effective, reducing recidivism rates to only 20% after two years in Norway, compared to 50% in the UK. 

These methods do come with a higher cost to maintain the prison. A place at Halden Prison costs about £98,000 per year compared to an annual cost of a prison in England being around £40,000 to £60,000. However, the drastic reduced recidivism rates correlates to improvement in inmates overall health, mental stability and calmness. It is proving to be worth the extra spending, not to mention the cost savings of avoiding re-incarceration. Norway has a policy where no inmates are sentenced for life. Governor of Halden Prison, Are Hoidal, says they are essentially “releasing your neighbor” and “if we treat inmates like animals in prison, then we will release animals on to your street.” They have established that prisoners cannot be treated poorly to then be expected to act orderly and civil once they are released. The prison provides the inmates with positive opportunities and learning experiences to help rehabilitate them, no matter the crime they have committed. 

It is important to continue to understand that the punitive approach is ineffective compared to rehabilitative methods in prison, probation and parole systems. TRACKtech, LLC recognizes the importance of rehabilitation as the solution to reducing recidivism and helping inmates adjust to life after prison. TRACKtech provides resources and support to keep program members on track and continuing to adjust more smoothly into society. 

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Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, Recidivism

Behavioral health professionals say it’s important to address mental health issues – even more so for an incarcerated individual. Corina Fisher, a Psychologist at L.E Phillips Libertas Treatment Center in Chippewa Falls, WI, states that we desperately need better services in jail. Recidivism will not be reduced, and criminal behavior will not be stopped by just locking up offenders with mental health issues. These individuals need to be rehabilitated so that when released, they can become productive citizens of society.

Governor Tony Evers of Chippewa County, WI has made a recent budget proposal to expand services to inmates with mental health needs. His new proposal would improve a statewide program called “Oars”, or Opening Avenues to Reentry Success, which is aimed at providing mental health resources to prisoners considered to be at a high risk of reoffending.

The Chippewa County Jail can accommodate up to 200 inmates, with a daily average of 130. In that daily average, Sheriff Jim Kowalczyk says that they deal with both female and male inmates with some type of mental illness. He says that it can be a serious challenge for law enforcement as their resources for handling this group is limited. Unfortunately, that lack of mental health resources often eventually leads these inmates right back behind bars. Kowalczyk said that today he is witnessing more and more issues of mental health than when he first became sheriff more than a decade ago.

Over 300 prisoners participated in the Oars mental health program last year. This new budget proposal includes funding for an additional 225 prisoners and could greatly improve the chances of those with mental illness to get a head start on improving their lives and overcoming recidivism.

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Recidivism

Recidivism is an endless struggle for cities across the country. While there have been many strategies to combat this never-ending cycle, it is proving to be a difficult issue to tackle. Many prisons have cognitive behavioral treatment programs that include classes on substance abuse, anger management, and family relationships. These have been developed with the intention of correcting an inmate’s pattern of thinking and behavior. However, results have shown that limiting these programs to prison walls is not making a large enough impact. It’s imperative that these programs continue during and after the reentry process.

The main causes for recidivism are the lack of housing, education, familial bonds, and employment. To genuinely make a dent in the recidivism crisis, no person should leave incarceration without a program to assist them with these valuable necessities. Community-based programs to help fight recidivism have been known to be expensive, but they are far more affordable than the cost of repeatedly committing someone for the same crimes. The ultimate goal of any program that aims to reduce recidivism is to improve the lives of these individuals and give them the best chance for successful reintegration into their communities.

Regardless of what rehabilitation programs occur within prison walls, it is negligible if a rehabilitated person cannot find work, housing, or a support system. Returning to prison becomes a very real possibility despite all the progress they have made. It is not uncommon for many to return to a life of crime to support their basic needs, even if they were successful in prison. Building this kind of support system and finding employment for ex-offenders is not an easy task. Many people without a criminal history have difficulty finding employment. If we are to achieve this lofty goal of successful rehabilitation and a much lower rate of recidivism, resources for housing, employment opportunities and dedicated community programs are necessary to help those reentering society regain control of their futures.

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Recidivism

Convicted Felon. This title carries with it a heavy stigma, and it can completely transform how a person is viewed by their community. On April 8th, 2019 Leroy Green of WLTX19 interviewed two prominent figures of the South Carolina community about the effects of recidivism. Professor Jennifer Trombley from Claflin University and Beasy Baybie, a DJ for HOT 103.9, are both convicted felons. Their stories are troubling, intriguing, and give a unique perspective of what it is like to have gone through the criminal justice system and made it out to become successful in their communities.

Beasy was incarcerated when she was still mothering her children. She did not know what to expect upon reentry and feels that she did not have adequate information on how to continue with her life outside bars. “I lost everything – clothes, car, house. I went to jail with kids and came out with kids, but I didn’t know how to parent them. Certain programs need to be included for women. We have expectations to be a mother, but how can I mother when I’m still broken? There needs to be more availability of forms of counseling and groups who have been incarcerated and come out the other side to raise their children. There are programs to help you with paperwork, IDs and Social Security cards to prepare you, but why aren’t there programs to prepare you for what to tell your children? There are parenting classes outside all the time, we need more in prison.”

They both believe that helping people with their reentry to society is incredibly important. Barriers to success need to be evaluated, and resources and programs to help with this need to be readily available. Mass incarceration does not work and has not been working for years. In five years, developing programs for recidivism has greatly cut down on the tax dollars spent on incarceration expenses and improved the recidivism rates for inmates in these programs. The recidivism rate fell 25% in 2014 and the state saved $491 million, while helping to improve the lives of generations of inmates.

There have been many monumental steps taken by the most recent presidents to overcome the ever-growing dilemma of recidivism. President Obama declared a National Reentry Week, in which he put into place 31 million in grants for job training for employment. These programs are evidence based and included many proven strategies to help those in need. He procured permanent support for housing, mentoring and parent programs, and put into motion the ban on the felony box in resumes for federal agencies. Prospective employees cannot be asked if they have a felony until after they have been offered employment. President Trump signed the bipartisan First Step Act that is full of monumental justice reform, such as greatly reducing the time spent by those incarcerated with good behavior, and moving prisoners closer to their families. Even with these changes, there is still a great deal to go before we have solved this crisis.

“We need to figure out how to not even send them to jail,” states Baybie. “They wound up in prison because they have no hope or options. Their circumstances made it feel necessary to commit these crimes. There are some brilliant people in prison that shouldn’t be there.” Trombley agrees, mentioning that “most of those who are in jail are marginalized populations. They struggled before and were in terrible circumstances. Why do we think that without sufficient resources and help that when they get out the circumstances would be any different?”

Many people do not consider recidivism or the incarcerated population to be something that affects them, but it affects them more than they could imagine. “You should care because eventually, they get out, and having people come home and not understanding how to get jobs or parent or be part of the community affects us all. We are all connected, and it would benefit us to help them not go to prison, and if they do, to help them become more productive when they get out,” states Beasy. Eventually, they do get out, as 80-85% of inmates reenter society. They need to be equipped with the proper tools and strategies to acquire a job and be less likely to reoffend. The Second Chance Program in South Carolina helps to drive these positive changes and assist reentering civilians to acquire jobs and better their lives. Out of the 783 people who went through the program, 75% got jobs.

Both Beasy and Trombley have hope for these new programs and the positive changes to justice reform, but they still feel that felons are looked at with a debilitating stigma. “It feels like we’re segregated. People don’t think that we are like them, but we are people. Their children go to school with our children. They’re driving around the streets with them. We are people that exist,” Beasy says, sadly. Trombley concurs, stating that “it almost feels like people don’t want us to succeed. The stigma feels like they want us to fail.” Jail was not easy for either of them to endure, and when they got out, it was like a whole new terrifying world.

They share a unifying desire to better their lives and the lives of others after being released. They both are driven by their faith and want to leave the world with a positive message that lives longer than they do. “It’s all about purpose, living one day to the next.” They want to spread awareness of the struggles faced by those rejoining their communities and what can be done to help. Ultimately, they want to spread love.

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Recidivism
With recidivism rates on the rise, an Arkansas County Jail has taken an intuitive step to help inmates achieve a more successful life after incarceration by providing a peer support group dubbed the PACT (Peers Achieving Collaborative Treatment) Program. This program, launching in 2019, will provide group meetings and one-on-one sessions for inmates addicted to drugs while they are incarcerated in the Lonoke County Jail. Through a grant awarded by the State Drug Director’s office, Lonoke County will hire a Peer Recovery Support Specialist to assist inmates struggling with addiction. The peer consultant will help them prepare for job interviews, acquire food stamps and find housing, while also assisting them with essential life skills and drug rehabilitation. Not being able to acquire employment is one of the leading causes of recidivism, and as such these programs are very likely to improve these inmate’s success as they reintegrate into their community.

Jimmy McGill, who oversees the peer recovery program and works alongside the Arkansas Drug Director’s Office, has a very personal investment in the program. He is four years sober, having gotten clean while incarcerated in this same jail. McGill successfully completed the peer program and gives hope to others who are currently participating in it. John Staley, the Lonoke County Sheriff, is very confident that this program will help reduce recidivism, so long as the inmates have constant support once they are released.

TRACKTech™ not only provides continuous monitoring, but also a convenient and immediate way to deliver therapeutic and rehabilitative support, which is extremely essential for those recovering from drug addiction. Becoming a productive and successful member of society is hard enough for most people released from incarceration, but overcoming a drug addiction is an even more difficult, and potentially life threatening, obstacle. Using the peer recovery program will help these people improve their lives, inside jail and out.
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Recidivism

The latest Bureau of Justice Statistics recidivism study found that within five years 77 percent of almost 70,000 prisoners released from 30 states have been convicted of new crimes. Prison efficiency is frequently measured by the rate of re-offense by those released into the community. The relatively high recidivism rate observed among prisoners demonstrates the ineffectiveness of current US prison systems. Not only have punitive policies been largely ineffective, they have also been wasteful and expensive. But can we diminish the costs of incarceration while also increasing the efficiency at which we prevent recidivism?

From the 1970s to the mid-2000s, prison population boomed, not only through more punitive sentences but also an increase in crime rates and, perhaps most notably, government expenditure. Punitive approaches have historically rarely achieved positive results in corrections. These approaches tend to not reduce recurrence, because they do not address the reasons why the individuals who have are released fail to transition from prison to their community. With an effective program in place, prisoners willing to participate, will lead to less recurrence and reduce both the use and costs of imprisonment.

Before evidence-based decision making and practices, those who were incarcerated had scarce access to resources necessary for their rehabilitation, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), treatment of substance abuse and dependency, sex offender treatment, education, employment programming and social support intervention. These practices have been proven to be highly effective and give the most value for our investment when applied as a system.  Therefore, it is important to incorporate and apply these programs by helping prisoners manage their needs through existing resources and support systems, ultimately reducing recidivism.

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Recidivism

Nearly 700,000 people are released from incarceration in the U.S every year. The repercussions of incarceration are extensive and everlasting, hindering job opportunities, housing, education, and financial stability. In Kentucky, a national initiative is being implemented to reduce recurrence using data and personalized approaches. Safe Streets and Second Chances (S3C) is an innovative program that takes an evidence-based approach to the chronic dilemmas facing repeat offenders and recidivism by using academic research to develop individualized plans to ease reentry and help with the improvement, rehabilitation and redemption of such individuals. It provides treatment programs for substance abuse and mental health assistance. There are a multitude of vocational programs and training which provide many essential skills for employment.

Kentucky’s Justice and Public Safety Cabinet Secretary, John Tilley, stated that “This is about getting people back to jobs.” A major way to reduce recidivism is to connect incarcerated people to a job soon after returning to the community. The reformation of the criminal justice system is of the utmost importance for the Kentucky Chamber as it has the potential to save money for the state and taxpayers, increase the low participation rate for Kentucky’s workforce, and fill 200,000 open jobs. Governor Matt Bevin applauded the work done by the S3C initiative over the past year, stating that “No amount of money is enough to spend on this issue, it is a costly process to incarcerate people.” The S3C project is currently underway in Kentucky, Texas, Florida, and Pennsylvania. This innovative and effective research through the S3C program is incentive to implement effective rehabilitation efforts to provide the greatest opportunity for individuals to succeed as they reenter society.

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